Administrative Empowerment in Iraqi International Soccer Fields

  • Usama Medlol Abdu Al Hessani
  • Alaa Abdulla Alrawi
Keywords: administrative empowerment, soccer stadiums, international


The research aimed at designing a scale for administrative empowerment in Iraqi international soccer fields as well as identifying the level of empowerment in those stadiums. The researchers used the descriptive method on (8) stadiums and the subjects were (150) individual. The data was collected and treated using SPSS to conclude that there is a high level of administrative empowerment. The researchers recommended developing administrative empowerment and designing suitable plans for improving abilities that lead to activating administrative empowerment in international soccer stadiums in Iraq. 

How to Cite
Abdu Al Hessani U, Alrawi A. Administrative Empowerment in Iraqi International Soccer Fields. jope [Internet]. 30Jun.2020 [cited 26Nov.2020];32(2):26-3. Available from: